From this analysis all elementary particles of our universe come to life. The last detected elementary particle, the top quark, was discovered in 1995 in the Tevatron collider.
In short: The complete symmetry-group of every real universe, i.e. with 4D-spacetime, must follow non-reducible from the spin˝xspin2 + spin˝xspin1 representation, which complies to the CAP.
The massless spin2 particle describes the graviton, through which all causing spin˝ masses interact.
The massless spin1 particle describes the EM-field, through which all causing spin˝ charges interact.
This is why only particles with spin s Î {2, 1, ˝} are observed and elementary particles with spin > 2 are not possible!
Notice, spinless elementary particles are not given!

A mathematical analysis shows that the average extendedness of an harmonic oscillating extended particle is proportional to the spin of the particle, i.e. the observed intrinsic angular-momentum (present due to oscillation in the 2D-plane orthogonal to the observed direction of motion) of the elementary particle. If an elementary particle is spinless, it can only exist on the observed worldline, i.e. spinless particles don't comply to the CAP. This is why elementary spinless particles are NOT possible!!!
This is why a correct description of our universe must omit the cosmological constant of Einstein! Einstein himself realized this and later called the cosmological constant his greatest mistake ever!
Also a compound spinless Higgs-particle doesn't come to life in a non-reducible description of our universe, i.e. it can only be described ad-hoc so must be omitted.

In QCD all quarks are described as spin˝ particles with so-called additional 2-valued isospin, to end up with a 4D description. The fact that quarks are not observed as elementary particles is not explained directly, but added ad-hoc. This is why I assume quarks to be intrinsic unstable elementary spin3/2 particles without so-called isospin. Each quark is charged, and as a result of that fact all compound quarks have non-zero charge distribution. This is why neutrons, even though they have no total-charge, always have detectable charge distribution. I.e. they can't be responsible for (part of) the dark matter. All possible elementary particles of our 4D universe are given by 3 families of fermions, which can be divided into elementary fermions, so-called leptons (3 charged electron families and 3 uncharged neutrino families) and the compound fermions, i.e. the so-called baryons each build from 3 massive and charged spin3/2 quarks. The force-fields resulting from these fermionic sources are all bosons of our universe: The massless and chargeless spin2 graviton and all gauge related bosons. The U(1)xSU(2) gauge-symmetry yields the spin1 photon, and the Z and W± elementary gauge-bosons representing the weak nuclear forces and the compound SU(3) gauge-bosons, which represent both the strong nuclear forces and the mesons. All given particles also have so-called anti-particles. Other particles not resulting from a non-reducible analysis of the complete symmetry group of our universe must be discarded.
As a result of this analysis dark matter has as only possible sources the 3 fundamental elementary chargeless particle families called neutrinos.
The neutrino masses are very small (me < 2.2eV, mμ < 170keV, mτ < 15.5MeV). On the other hand the amount of neutrinos exceeds all other fermions. The background radiation alone results in a density of neutrinos of about 108 neutrinos/m3. When realizing that all hadronic interactions always result into uncountable amounts of neutrinos (for example nuclear fusion at the sun results in a neutrino flux of about 5.1010 neutrinos/m2 at the surface of the earth).
The mentioned amount of neutrinos from the background radiation of the Big Bang (approximately 2.7 K) obviously isn't enough to obtain the required mass density of our observed flat universe. However, our universe also has neutrino sources resulting from all scattered hadrons into all spacelike directions away from the starting point of the Big Bang. These hadronic neutrino sources are such that the Big Bang contribution is negligible! Neutrinos have very very small masses and as a result travel with speeds comparable to the maximum massless-speed of light. Consequently the mass density of the neutrinos is very homogenic. This explains the flatness of our universe, even though visible mass enforces completely different conclusions.

Elementary spinless particles do NOT exist, i.e. the Higgs mechanism contradicts CAP. This is why I assume a Higgs particle will never be found. A SR description is sufficient for all observations on the surface of our earth. Curvature is only needed on cosmic scales, like our solar system, etc.. Still, the gravitational action must be taken into account in any description according to CAP. This implies for any SR description, including all QM descriptions, that all elementary particles must be described extended in the 2D-plane orthogonal to the observed direction of motion, i.e. the SR worldline. The solutions of this SR extendedness have all characteristics of the well-known Hilbert-space. I.e. it solves problem 6 of the 23 problems of David Hilbert.
All appearing divergences in all used Q(uantum)F(ield)T(heories) disappear after describing all elementary particles correctly SR as extended particles in the 2D-plane orthogonal to the observed direction of motion (SR worldline). As a result of this extendedness, the minimum average distance between fermions is equal to the Planck-length.

Last but not least I'll mention that all uncertainty relations of QM are explained completely, and that all 2D-string theories, with more than 4D-spacetime contradict the fundamental basics of why our universe is as observed. Only remember the assumed Super Symmetry in Superstring theories, in which symmetry between all fermions bosons is needed. Super Symmetry results in 3 families of bosons with different rest-masses only(selectron, smuon, stauon). A simple mathematical analysis shows that only fermions have different families and of all elementary bosons only one species is possible. Also the assumed 2 independent causes of uncertainty (QM and extendedness of the string) are false, áll uncertainty relations of QM are explained by CAP and all elementary particles must have uncertainty in their positions equal to the Planck-length. Remember that in QM the energy of an elementary particle is given by the measured frequency. This frequency just is the observed frequency of oscillation in the 2D-plane orthogonal to the observed direction of motion. This oscillation is also detectable along the direction of motion and in this way explains Heisenberg's uncertainty relations.

It is often acclaimed that the QM uncertainty relations cannot be explained using hidden variables. Remember Bell's inequalities. Only if every experiment satisfies these statistic inequalities, hidden variables are possible. Very many experiments have shown that physics does not comply to Bell's inequalities. The major problem in these experiments is the fact that all these experiments always use uncountable many elementary particles, even if average decay results into extreme high probability of one particle passing the wave-particle splitter one at a time. Any detected interference pattern always requires uncountable particles hitting a detector. Only one particle passing a more paths experiment is not possible, because in all experiments the frequency of the particles coming from the source must me known and all such sources require an experimental setup yielding uncountable interacting particles, which hit one or more detectors. Up to this day Bell's statistical inequalities aren't proven wrong!


Last change: 20-08-2009 15:56:02